A complication is the emergence of a new morbid phenomenon during an illness, injury, or treatment.
The occurrence of a complication could compromise the success of the implant if left untreated.
The failure of the implant can be:
- Biological: Loss or non-attainment of osseointegration
- Biomechanical: Failure of the prosthesis
1. Vascular complications
- Mucosal or skin bruising
- Subperiosteal hematoma
- Postoperative hemorrhage
2. Nerve complications
- Sensory disorders such as paresthesia or anesthesia of the lower lip and chin.
These complications can occur when the nerve is damaged.
They are usually regressive and last 2 to 3 months.
However, if the mandibular nerve is directly damaged, the sensory deficit is permanent.
3. Technical complications
- Insufficient bone volume
If a patient lacks natural bone in the jaw, it can be built up, before implants are placed. This is usually achieved through the use of bone grafts.
- Fenestration and dehiscence, which are anatomical variations of cortical bone
- Poor primary stability of the implant due to:
Excessive crestal flare
Any infection could compromise the osteointegration and lead to the loss of the implant.
The implant procedure must be performed in a sterile environment and the surgical site must be kept clean after the surgery.
- Sinus complications
Hemosinus, sinusitis, oroantral communication…
These complications can occur when the maxillary sinus is not preserved.
- Mucosal complications
Exposure of the sealing screw
- Insufficient closure of the surgical site
- Insufficient implant burying
- Bone resorption at the collar of the implant
- Thin soft tissue
In this case, the screw must be brushed and irrigated.
In case of inflammation, the sealing screw is replaced by the healing abutment, which must also be brushed regularly.