Gastroesophageal reflux, also known as acid reflux, heartburnacid indigestion, or pyrosis, is a common condition in which acid in the stomach rises into the esophagus.

This occurs when the sphincter muscle at the lower end of your esophagus relaxes at the wrong time.


  • Malfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter 
  • Hiatal hernia
  • Abdominal hypertension
  • History of gastric surgery
  • Defect of the resistance of the esophageal mucosa
  • An anomaly of the gastric fluid
  • Medication and toxic substances (beta-blockers, calcic inhibitors, nicotine, alcohol, caffeine)


  • A burning sensation behind the sternum is felt after eating or drinking very cold or hot beverages.
  • Acidic regurgitations
  • Nocturnal coughing reflex 

These symptoms can increase when the abdominal pressure increases. This can occur in certain situations:

  • Leaning forward
  • Sleeping on the stomach or right side
  • Exerting an effort while sneezing or defecating
  • After eating food rich in fat or alcohol


  • A detailed interview of the patient can suffice to diagnose acid reflux
  • An endoscopy of the esophagus is the test of choice when diagnosing this condition. It allows the visualization of oesophagitis or lesions.
  • A pH meter can measure the acidity of the esophagus


  • Lose weight in case of obesity
  • Eat smaller meals 
  • Avoid soft drinks
  • Avoid irritating foods such as coffee, alcohol, spices, acidic fruits
  • Avoid tobacco
  • Avoid leaning forward if possible
  • Antacid can be prescribed to relieve heartburn


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